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Nationalist Policies With and Without Expropriation: The Case of the Oil Industry in Colombia and Mexico in the Twentieth Century
(Politicile naţionaliste cu şi fără expropriere: cazul industriei petroliere n Columbia şi Mexic n secolul XX)
Vol LVIII • No. 2/2006
Marcelo Bucheli
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - Department of History and Department of Business Administration
e-mail: ssu@upg-ploiesti.ro

 Keywords   history, oil history, industrial policies.

 Abstract
In 1938, the Mexican government expropriated the foreign properties of multinational corporations operating in Mexico, and created a state-owned company (PEMEX). This action had a strong impact in other Latin American countries that saw the Mexican initiative as a proof that a Latin American country could have its own oil industry. This article studies the impact of the Mexican expropriation in Colombia and shows that, even though the Colombians also wanted a national oil company, they did not want to do it through expropriation of private property. The reason of this difference relies on the different political bases of each country's government: while the Mexican government's base was the working class, the Colombian government represented the merchant and industrial elite, who did not want to set precedents of private property expropriation. This difference led to a Colombian nationalist policy that respected the contracts with the foreign corporations.

 Rezumat
n 1938, guvernul mexican a expropriat proprietăţile străine ale corporaţiilor multinaţionale care operau n Mexic şi a creat o companie de stat (PEMEX). Această acţiune a avut un impact puternic asupra altor ţări latino-americane care au văzut n iniţiativa Mexicului o dovadă că ţările latino-americane ar putea avea propria industrie petrolieră. Acest articol studiază impactul exproprierilor Mexicului asupra Columbiei şi arată că, chiar dacă columbienii şi doreau de asemenea o companie naţională de petrol, ei nu au făcut acest lucru prin exproprierea proprietăţii private. Motivul acestei diferenţe decurge din diferenţa de politică a guvernului fiecărei ţări: n timp ce baza guvernului mexican era formată din clasa muncitorilor, guvernul columbian era reprezentat de elita comerţului şi a industriei, care nu dorea să creeze precedente asupra exproprierilor proprietăţilor private. Această diferenţă a condus la o politică naţionalistă care a respectat contractele cu corporaţiile străine.



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