TECHICAL Series MATHEMATICS • INFORMATICS • PHYSICS Series PHILOLOGY Series ECONOMIC SCIENCES Sereies EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES Series LAW AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Series
Critical Issues of Language Policy in Multilingual Educational Contexts
(University of Kashan, Ravand Street, Iran *e-mail: rahimijah@yahoo.com)
Vol. LXI • No. 1/2009
Ali Rahimi*, Mohammad T. Faravardin
University of Kashan, Ravand Street, Iran
*e-mail: rahimijah@yahoo.com

 Keywords   language policy, multilingual education, language planning, ideology, power.

 Abstract
Bilingualism and multilingualism are indispensable necessity of everyday life for the majority of the world's population. According to Romaine (1995), "linguists estimate that there are roughly 6800 languages in the world, but only about 200 nation-states. With more than 30 times as many languages as there are countries, bilingualism or multilingualism is present in practically every country in the world, whether it is officially recognized or not [6, p. 584]. This implies that multilingual educational contexts include the educational practices of most countries in the world. The various cultural and linguistic contexts existing in modern societies around the world create complex challenges for policy makers in many areas. In this regard, a wide range of conditions can have an effect on language policy. As Ferguson [15, p. 9] puts it, "all language planning activities take place in particular sociolinguistic settings, and the nature and scope of the planning can only be fully understood in relation to the settings". [38, p. 15] Also other issues pertinent to language policy such as "standardization, language planning and bilingual programs can also serve as the instruments of linguicide? [29, p. 23], which is a rampant and effectual phenomenon in multilingual contexts. In this paper issues most germane to language policy in multilingual educational contexts, namely components of language policy, language policies in nation-states, typologies and models of multilingual education, types of bilingual education, bilingual education models, immersion program, the effectiveness of bilingual education, standardization, standard languages, language ideology and beliefs, language loyalty, language planning and language policy shall be touched upon. In the epilogue the relationship between language policy, power and linguicide shall be followed by the recapitulation of the discussion.

 Rezumat
Bilingvismul şi multilingvismul sunt necesităţi pentru majoritatea populaţiei lumii. După Romaine (1995), "lingviştii estimează că există aproximativ 6800 de limbi pe glob, dar numai 200 de state naţionale. Când sunt de 30 de ori mai multe limbi decât ţări, bilingvlismul sau multilingvismul sunt prezente în practic fiecare ţară din lume, fie că este oficial recunoscut sau nu?. [6, p. 584] Contextele culturale şi lingvistice variate care există în societăţile moderne din lume creează provocări complexe pentru cei care decid politicile. În această privinţă, asupra politicilor limbajului pot avea efect o varietate de condiţii. După cum spune Ferguson [15, p. 9], "toate activităţile de planificare a limbajului au loc în anumite medii sociolingvistice şi natura planificării poate fi înţeleasă pe deplin numai în relaţie cu aceste medii". [38, p. 15] În acest articol sunt tratate cele mai apropiate probleme legate de politica limbajului în contexte educaţionale multilinguale, cum ar fi: componente de politica limbajului, politici ale limbajului în statele naţionale, tipuri de educaţie bilingvă, programe de imersiune, eficacitatea educaţiei bilingve şi standardizarea. În încheiere, articolul urmăreşte relaţia dintre politica limbajului, putere şi "lingvicid?.



Vol. LXII • No. 2/2010
Vol. LXII • No. 1B/2010
Vol. LXII • No. 1A/2010
Vol. LXI • No. 2/2009
Vol. LXI • No. 1/2009
Vol LX • No. 1C/2008
Vol. LX • No. 1B/2008
Vol LX • No. 1A/2008
Vol LIX • No. 2/2007
Vol LIX • No. 1/2007
Vol LVIII • No. 2/2006
Vol LVIII • No. 1/2006
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